Science & Papers

Six topics on quitting smoking, addiction & recovery, health & well-being.

1. The 6 most scientifically proven methods to help you quit smoking
2. Health Benefits of Quitting Smoking for Seniors
3. How To Handle Withdrawal Symptoms and Triggers When You Decide To Quit Smoking\
4. Smoking and Addiction Recovery
5. Smoking Relapse: What to Do If You Start Smoking Again
6. Smoking Among College Students. Maryville University Online

Below are links to various publications covering tobacco use, ecigarette use, regulations, research and protocols.

1 Tobacco Advisory Group of the Royal College of Physicians. Nicotine without smoke: tobacco harm reduction. Royal College of Physicians, 2016
2 McNeill et al. E-cigarettes: an evidence update. Public Health England, 2015
3 Filippidis et al. Two-year trends and predictors of e-cigarette use in 27 European Union member states. Tobacco Control, 24 May 2016
4 Stimson et al. Disruptive innovations: the rise of the electronic cigarette International Journal of Drug Policy Vol 25, 2014
5 Fagerstrom et al. E-cigarettes: a disruptive technology that revolutionizes our field? Nicotine & Tobacco Research Vol 17 Issue 2, 2015.
6 McRobbie et al. Electronic cigarettes for smoking cessation and reduction (review). Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2014 Issue 12.
7 Directive 2014/40/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council, April 2014
8 The Tobacco and Related Products Regulations, 2016
9 The Tobacco and Related Product Regulations, House of Lords Hansard, Vol 771, 10 May 2016
10 House of Lords Business. Motions relating to Delegated Legislation, 19 April 2016
11 Tobacco and Related Products Regulations, House of Lords Hansard, Vol 773, 4 July 2016
12 Statistics on Smoking, England. Health and Social Care Information Centre, 2016
13 Tobacco use: key points. Scottish Public Health Observatory, 2016
14 Tobacco and Health in Wales. Public Health Observatory Wales, 2012
15 Smoking. Northern Ireland Government Services accessed 8 August 2016
16 ASH factsheet: Smoking Statistics: Who Smokes and How Much. February 2016
17 Smoking Toolkit Study: top line findings. STS140721. May 2016
18 HMRC Tobacco Bulletin. April 2016
19 ASH factsheet: The Economics of Tobacco. December 2015.
20 Mayer. How much nicotine kills a human? Tracing back the generally accepted lethal dose to dubious self-experiments in the nineteenth century. Arch Toxicol Vol 88, 2014
21 McEwen et al. Electronic cigarettes: a briefing for Stop Smoking Services National Centre for Smoking Cessation and Training, 2016
22 Zhu et al. Four hundred and sixty brands of e-cigarettes and counting: implications for product regulation. Tobacco Control Vol 23, 2014
23 Smoking Toolkit Study: trends in electronic cigarette use in England STS140122. May 2016.
24 ASH factsheet: Use of electronic cigarettes (vapourisers) among adults in Great Britain, May 2016
25 Bauld et al. E-cigarette uptake among UK youth: experimentation, but little or no regular use in non-smokers. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 2016
26 Ford et al. Adolescents’ responses to the promotion and flavouring of e-cigarettes. Int J Public Health Vol 61, 2016
27 Eadie et al. E-cigarette marketing in UK stores: an observational audit and retailers’ views. BMJ Open, 2015
28 E-cigarettedirect. 12 vaping stats & trends for the informed e-cig retailer January 2016
29 Bauld et al. E-cigarette uptake and marketing. Public Health England, 2014.
30 Fergus. Big Tobacco and heat not burn – friend or foe? February 2016
31 Farsalinos & Polosa. Safety evaluation and risk assessment of electronic cigarettes as tobacco substitutes: a review of the literature. Ther Adv Drug Saf Vol 5 Issue 2, 2014
32 Burstyn. Peering through the mist: systematic review of what the chemistry of contaminants in electronic cigarettes tells us about health risks. BMC Public Health, 2014
33 ASH factsheet: Smoking Statistics, November 2015
34 Smoking Toolkit Study: e-cigarette use for quitting smoking: England 2015. STS120722
35 Opportunities and Challenges: What does the future hold? Proprietary Association of Great Britain Annual Review, 2015
36 Chen et al. E-Cigarette Design Preference and Smoking Cessation: A U.S. Population Study. Am J Prev Med, 2016
37 McRobbie et al. Study protocol: A randomised controlled trial to examine the efficacy of e-cigarettes compared with nicotine replacement therapy, when used within the UK stop smoking service. April 2015
38 Hiscock et al. Views from the Coalface: What Do English Stop Smoking Service Personnel Think about E-Cigarettes? Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, Vol 12 Issue 2, 2015
39 McEwen et al. Smoking cessation: a briefing for midwifery staff (2nd edition). National Centre for Smoking Cessation and Training, May 2015
40 Smoking in Pregnancy Challenge Group, 2016
41 Foulds et al. Development of a questionnaire for assessing dependence upon electronic cigarettes among a large sample of ex-smoking e-cigarette users. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, Vol 17 Issue 2, 2015
42 Health and Social Care Information Centre. Statistics on NHS Stop Smoking Services in England – April 2014 to March 2015
43 Taylor et al. Will smoking meet its match? UCL School of Pharmacy, 2015
44 Barbry et al. Smoking in public places. House of Commons Library, 27 March 2015
45 Unison. Health & safety information sheet: smoking at work. March 2015
46 Public Health England, 2016. Use of e-cigarettes in public places and workplaces
48 British Medical Association. Call to ban e-cigarettes in public places. 26 June 2014
49 E-cigarettes. British Medical Association, May 2016
50 Donnelly. Ban e-cigarettes in bars and restaurants, leading doctors say. Daily Telegraph, 23 June 2016
51 National Assembly for Wales Record of Proceedings, 16 March 2016.
52 E-liquid UK Store. Places where vaping (e-cigarettes) is banned in the UK. 9 September 2015
53 Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust. Ban on e-cigarettes lifted to help smokers give up. 11 May 2016
54 Andrew Selous MP. Smoking in prisons. 29 September 2015
55 Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency. E-cigarettes: regulations for consumer products. 27 May 2016
56 Totally Wicked. Press Statement: European Court Rules in Totally Wicked Legal Challenge to Article 20 of the Tobacco Products Directive. 4 May 2016
57 ASH briefing. The impact of the EU Tobacco Products Directive on e-cigarette regulation in the UK. March 2016
58 Cancer Research UK. Electronic cigarettes. March 2015
59 Caponetto et al. What to consider when regulating electronic cigarettes: Pros, cons and unintended consequences. International Journal of Drug Policy, Vol 26, 2015
60 Bates. What is wrong with the Tobacco Products Directive for vapour products? 22 May 2015
61 British Standards Institute. PAS 54115:2015. Vaping products, including electronic cigarettes, e-liquids, e-shisha and directly-related products. Manufacture, importation, testing and labelling – Guide. July 2015
62 Bates. Who cares about a few thousand dead? Defending EU limits on the strength of nicotine e-liquids. 4 May 2016
63 New Nicotine Alliance & Bates. Letter to Department of Health. 29th April 2016
64 Committee of Advertising Practice Ltd. UK Code of Non-broadcast Advertising, Sales Promotion and Direct Marketing (edition 12) Section 22: electronic cigarettes. 2014
65 Committee of Advertising Practice Ltd. The UK Code of Broadcast Advertising (edition 1) Section 32: electronic cigarettes. 2014
66 Health (Tobacco, Nicotine etc. and Care) (Scotland) Bill. April 2016
67 Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency. Licensing Procedure for Electronic Cigarettes and Other Nicotine Containing Products (NCPs) as Medicines
68 Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency. UK Public Assessment Report e-Voke 10 & 15mg Electronic Inhaler. November 2015
69 Britton & Bogdanovica. Electronic Cigarettes. Public Health England, 2014.
70. Oxford Academic. Cigarette Users’ Interest in Using or Switching to Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems for Smokeless Tobacco for Harm Reduction, Cessation, or Novelty: A Cross-Sectional Survey of US Adults. 2015
71 Jakes. The pleasure principle. 18 February 2016.
72. BMS. Ethical considerations of e-cigarette use for tobacco harm reduction. 2016
73. BMJ. Comparing the cancer potencies of emissions from vapourised nicotine products including e-cigarettes with those of tobacco smoke. 2017
74. thebmj. US plan gives greater role to electronic cigarettes in tobacco harm reduction. 2017
75. Journal of Health Politics, Policy & Law. Minors, Moral Psychology, and the Harm Reduction Debate: The Case of Tobacco and Nicotine. 2017
76. Oxford Academic. No Smoke Without Fire: Harm Reduction, E-Cigarettes and the Smoking Endgame. 2017
77. Sage Journal. Next-generation tobacco and nicotine products: Substantiating harm reduction and supporting tobacco regulatory science. 2018
78. Springer Link. Global and local perspectives on tobacco harm reduction: what are the issues and where do we go from here? 2018
79. AACS. New research shows growing support for e-cigarettes. 2019
80. AJPH. Financial Conflicts of Interest and Stance on Tobacco Harm Reduction: A Systematic Review. 2019
81. Wiley Online Library. Moderators of real‐world effectiveness of smoking cessation aids: a population study. 2019
82. Harm Reduction Journal. Smokeless tobacco mortality risks: an analysis of two contemporary nationally representative longitudinal mortality studies. 2019
83. Nicotine & Tobacco Research. E-cigarettes and Smoking Cessation in the United States. 2019
84. Vaping in England: an evidence update February 2019
85. The New England Journal of Medicine. A Randomized Trial of E-Cigarettes versus Nicotine-Replacement Therapy. 2019
86. Internal and Emergency Medicine. Patterns of e-cigarette use, biochemically verified smoking status and self-reported changes in health status of a random sample of vapeshops customers in Greece. 2019


87. ERS. A rational approach to e-cigarettes: challenging ERS policy on tobacco harm reduction. 2020
88. Science Direct. Tobacco harm reduction: Past history, current controversies and a proposed approach for the future. 2020
89. Elsevier.
Nicotine vaping products as a harm reduction tool among smokers: Review of evidence and implications for pharmacy practice. 2020
90. Harm Reduction Journal.
Potential effects of using non-combustible tobacco and nicotine products during pregnancy: a systematic review. 2020
91.  The Lancet. E-cigarettes: striking the right balance. 2020
92. Qeios. E-cigarette use and COVID-19 in youth and young adults: serious questions about data reliability and call for retraction. 2020
93. VIDA News. The FDA vs. Tobacco Harm Reduction 2020
94. Qeios.
Bad Data and Bad Conclusions Will Lead to Bad Policy – Implausible Claims that Vaping Increases COVID-19 Risk for Youth and Young Adults. 2020
95. NCBI. E-cigarette Use Among Middle and High School Students — United States, 2020
96. Science Direct. Association of E-Cigarette Use With Respiratory Disease Among Adults: A Longitudinal Analysis 2020
97. Oxford Academic.
Use of Electronic Cigarettes to Aid Long-Term Smoking Cessation in the United States 2020
98. NCBI. Race, Educational Attainment, and E-Cigarette Use 2020
99. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs. Why Are National Estimates So Different? A Comparison of Youth E-Cigarette Use and Cigarette Smoking in the MTF and PATH Surveys 2020
100. European Journal of Public Health. Electronic cigarette use among 14- to 17-year-olds in Europe 2020
101. Wiley Online. Socioeconomic distribution of e‐cigarette use among recent former regular smokers and current smokers at ages 25‐26 in England 2020


102. BMJ Journals. Youth and young adult risk perceptions and behaviours in response to an outbreak of e-cigarette/vaping-associated lung injury (EVALI) in the USA 2021
103. Oxford academic. E-cigarettes: The Long-Term Liberal Perspective 2021
104. Oxford academic. The Misuse of the Precautionary Principle in Justifying Australia’s Ban on the Sale of Nicotine Vaping Products 2021
105. PLOS ONE. Perceptions, symptoms, and practices of electronic cigarette users: Descriptive analysis and validation of Arabic short form vaping consequences questionnaire 2021
106. Science Direct. E-cigarette use among young adults: A latent class analysis examining co-use and correlates of nicotine vaping 2021
107. American Journal of Preventive Medicine.  Vaping and E-Cigarettes Within the Evolving Tobacco Quitline Landscape. 2021
108. Bone & Joint Research.
Do E-cigarettes and vaping have a lower risk of osteoporosis, nonunion, and infection than tobacco smoking? 2021
109. Nicotine & Tobacco Research. A Magic Bullet? The Potential Impact of E-Cigarettes on the Toll of Cigarette Smoking 2021
110.  Journal of Community Health. The Era of E-Cigarettes: A Cross-Sectional Study of Vaping Preferences, Reasons for Use and Withdrawal Symptoms Among Current E-Cigarette Users in the United Arab Emirates 2021
111. International Journal of Drug Policy. Responsibility, normalisation and negotiations of harm: E-cigarette users’ opinions and experiences of vaping around children 2021
112. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
Vaping in the Workplace. Prevalence and Attitudes Among Employed US Adults 2021
113.  Idwala Research. WHO’s conflicted 2021
114. Royal College of Physicians. Smoking and health 2021: A coming of age for tobacco control? 2021
115. HCP Live. Current E-Cigarette Science. 2021
116. Sage Journals. Electronic Cigarette Use Is Not Associated with COVID-19 Diagnosis. 2021


117. PLOS ONE. Predictors of perceived success in quitting smoking by vaping: A machine learning approach. 2022
118. Taylor & Francis Online. Do perceptions and experiences of vaping among youth and young adults differ by device type? 2022
119. Science Direct. School-based E-cigarette cessation programs: What do youth want? 2022
120. BMJ Journals. Harm reduction for smokers with little to no quit interest: can tobacco policies encourage switching to e-cigarettes?  2022
121. Oxford Academic. Adolescents’ Use of Nicotine-Free and Nicotine E-Cigarettes: A Longitudinal Study of Vaping Transitions and Vaper Characteristics 2022
122. Circulation. E-Cigarettes and Cardiopulmonary Health: Review for Clinicians 2022
123. BMJ. Effectiveness of e-cigarettes as aids for smoking cessation: evidence from the PATH Study cohort 2022
124. ERS Journals. E-cigarettes and nicotine abstinence: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials 2022
125. MDPI. E-Cigarettes Use Behaviors in Japan: An Online Survey 2022
126. BMC. E-cigarettes and youth: an unresolved Public Health concern. 2022
127. CDC. Notes from the Field: E-cigarette Use Among Middle and High School Students – US. 2022


128. BMJ. Characterisation of vaping liquids used in vaping devices across four countries. 2023
129. ScienceDirect. Stealth vaping and associated attitudes, perceptions, and control beliefs among US college students across four tobacco-free campuses. 2023
130. Journal of Primary Health Care. Electronic cigarettes for smoking cessation: do they work? 2023
131. Springer. A scoping review of studies on the health impact of electronic nicotine delivery systems. 2023
132. Oxford Academic. The Australia Smoking and Vaping Model: The Potential Impact of Increasing Access to Nicotine Vaping Products. 2023
133. BMJ Journals. Vaping on TikTok: a systematic thematic analysis. 2023
134. The Lancet. Common assumptions in tobacco control that may not hold true for South-East Asia. 2023
135. pdf file.  Vaping Expectancies: A Qualitative Study among Young Adult Nonusers, Smokers, Vapers, and Dual Users. 2023
136. News Medical Life Sciences. Study shows e-cigarettes not linked to wheezing risk. 2023
137. White Rose. Do Tobacco Companies Have an Incentive to Promote “Harm Reduction” Products? The Role of Competition. 2023
138. JMR. Comparing the Effectiveness, Tolerability, and Acceptability of Heated Tobacco Products and Refillable Electronic Cigarettes for Cigarette Substitution (CEASEFIRE): Randomized Controlled Trial. 2023
139. MDPI. Two Different Heated Tobacco Products vs. Cigarettes: Comparison of Nicotine Delivery and Subjective Effects in Experienced Users. 2023
140. The Lancet. Impact of smokeless tobacco policies. 2023


141. Sage Journals. How Do Vape Advertising Campaigns Affect Consumers’ Vaping Tendency? A Meta-Analytic Investigation. 2024
142. Science Direct. Effects of a nicotine warning label and vaping cessation resources on young adults’ perceptions of pro-vaping instagram influencer posts. 2024
143. Tobacco Induced Diseases. E-cigarettes on Instagram: Exploring vape content via an Australian vaping influencer. 2024
144. Medical Republic.
Safety of e-cigarettes and nicotine patches as stop-smoking aids in pregnancy. 2024
145. Science Media Centre. Expert reaction to e-cigarettes to quit smoking. 2024
146. Mendelsohn, Wodak, Hall, Borland. New Zealand vs Australia: The impact of vaping policies on vaping outcomes. 2024
147. The Lancet. Harnessing tobacco harm reduction. 2024
148. The New England Journal of Medicine. Electronic Nicotine-Delivery Systems for Smoking Cessation. 2024